The Trophoblast Model of Cancer

The trophoblast model of cancer is a highly specified, scientifically testable model that is supported by both animal data and clinical outcome data. In brief, the model states that during fetal development, trophoblast cells break off and lodge in all the different tissues of the body. The trophoblast cells form the trophoblast during early pregnancy. The trophoblast invades the wall of the uterus, sets up a blood supply for itself, and then stabilizes to become the placenta. The properties of normal trophoblast cells are that they are: invasive; undifferentiated; rapidly dividing; create their own blood supply, resist cell adhesion (do not stick to other trophoblast cells very well); and resist immune surveillance. The trophoblast cells have to have these properties in order to do their job. According to the model, the signal that converts the trophoblast to the stable placenta is pancreatic enzymes.

In adulthood, the trophoblast cells that are lodged in different tissues can escape their dormant state for unknown reasons. They then begin to behave like trophoblast cells do: they invade, divide, create their own blood supply and resist immune surveillance. In addition, due to signals in the local tissue, they take on the properties of normal cells in the tissue in which they have been dormant, but only partially. Thus, trophoblasts in brain tissue become brain cancer, those in liver become liver cancer, and so on. This is basically an adult stem cell model of cancer.

According to the model, then, cancer cells are not normal cells that have de-differeniated back in the direction of stem cells, rather they are normal trophoblasts that have escaped normal regulatory control. The key point of the model is that pancreatic enzymes can be used to treat cancer, along with intensive nutritional support.

In Dr. Ross' opinion, the trophoblast model of cancer, and the treatment of cancer with pancreatic enzymes, should be taken very seriously by the medical profession. Substantial funding should be provided by the National Cancer Institute to study the basic science of the model and the effectiveness of the treatment.

Dr. Ross has published two papers about Dr. Nicholas Gonzalez and the trophoblast model of cancer:

  • Ross, C.A. (2015). The trophoblast model of cancer. Nutrition and Cancer, 67, 61-67.
  • Ross, C.A. (2015). Methodological flaws in the Chabot trial of pancreatic enzymes for cancer therapy. ARC Journal of Cancer Science, 1, 1-4.

Also, Dr. Ross has edited a special issue of the journal, Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine on Dr. Gonzalez and the trophoblast model of cancer (July, 2016, Volume 20, Number 4):

Most recently, Dr. Ross has edited and written an Introduction for three books by Dr. Gonzalez published following his death on July 21, 2015. One of these has been published and two are forthcoming:

  • Gonzalez, N.G. (2016). Conquering cancer: Volume one. 50 pancreatic and breast cancer patients on the Gonzalez Nutritional Protocol. New York: New Spring Press.
  • Gonzalez, N.G. (2017). Conquering cancer: Volume two. New York: New Spring Press.
  • Gonzalez, N.G. (2017). Nutrition and the autonomic nervous system: The scientific foundations of The Gonzalez Protocol. New York: New Spring Press

In 2016, Dr. Ross was appointed to the Board of The Nicholas Gonzalez Foundation. Dr. Ross will work with the other Board members to develop a teaching and training curriculum for the treatment of cancer and other diseases with The Gonzalez Protocol.

A short tribute video about Dr. Gonzalez and his work is available.

Dr. Gonzalez Tribute Video

The Trophoblast Model of Cancer (Taylor & Francis Online)

ARC Journal of Cancer Science

Dr. Ross recently appeared on the Intelligent Medicine podcast hosted by Dr. Ron Hoffman, discussing the trophoblast model of cancer.